How magnet produced by the characteristics of the magnet is determined by atomic if the current explanation is that other objects magnetizing magnetic field generated by the current object interactions generate an electric field generating a force field acting substance is mostly composed of molecules, molecules are composed of atoms of atomic nuclei and electrons in turn. In atomic internal, electronic stop rotation, and rotation around the nucleus. Both motion of electrons will have magnetic properties. However, in most substances, the direction of electron motion varies disorganized, magnetic effects cancel each other out. Thus, most of the material under normal circumstances, does not exhibit magnetic properties. Iron, cobalt, nickel or ferrite ferromagnetic substances different, it inside the electron spin can spontaneously line up in a small area, forming a spontaneous magnetization area, this area is called the spontaneous magnetization of the magnetic domain. Magnetization of ferromagnetic materials, the internal magnetic domains neatly lined up in unison direction, the magnetic strengthening, constitute a magnet. Magnet iron absorption process is the process of magnetization of iron, between the magnetized iron and magnets of different polarity appeal, iron will and the magnet firmly "stick" together.
By magnetizing machine to hard magnetic magnetization. According to the principle of electromagnetic induction, current can produce a magnetic field, the use of a strong magnetic field of the hard magnetic material magnetized magnet magnetic generally referred to, in fact, several different things: The most common magnets, such as general speaker magnets, iron ceramic dielectrics magnet. They are made of hot-rolled steel plant during the fall rolled down from the surface of the billet mill scale (iron oxide flake form), after cleaning, crushing and then adding a small amount of other substances into the steel mold compression molding then in a reducing electric furnace (through hydrogen) sintering, so that part was ferrite oxide reduction, cooling, and then placed in the exciter magnetizing produced. Some high-end than they are magnets: Magnet is a real steel, consisting of iron, mainly with high content of nickel. It is generally used melting furnace (only a hundred kilograms per furnace), casting molding, because some of the plane with a precision requirements, generally to be used for grinding machine grinding.
Then magnetization, a product. Various types of measurement of electricity meters in use on this magnet. More advanced magnetic materials, NdFeB Magnets category. They are the rare earth element neodymium, iron and boron substances. The method of production is based on carbide production: After milling - Mixed - molding - sintering - finishing - magnetized together. Such magnetic field strength of the highest performance, most expensive. Is national defense and precision equipment will be used. Electronic table stepping motor rotor that is. Ah, such a magnetic levitation train is certainly useful. Ferrite magnets materials: strontium - barium ferrite magnet material and - ferrite permanent magnet materials, which have isotropic and anisotropic points, speaker magnet material commonly used ferrite magnets ; metal permanent magnet materials are aluminum nickel and cobalt permanent magnetic materials and rare earth permanent magnet materials. Rare earth permanent magnet material is divided into: samarium cobalt permanent magnet material and NdFeB. Rare earth permanent magnet materials are made by powder metallurgy process. The magnetic strength? I do not find convincing data. Magnets classification too much, I am here simply under: magnetic material timber has two main categories: The first is a permanent magnet material (also called hard magnetic): The material itself has saved a second soft magnetic characteristics of the magnetic force (also known as solenoids): Requires external energized to produce a magnetic level we are talking about magnets, generally refers to the permanent magnetic materials permanent magnetic materials are also two major categories: the first category are: permanent magnet alloy material comprises a rare earth permanent magnet material (NdFeB Nd2Fe14B), samarium cobalt (SmCo), neodymium nickel and cobalt (NdNiCO) The second category are: ferrite permanent magnet material (Ferrite) were divided by the production process: Sintered Ferrite (Sintered Ferrite), bonded ferrite (magnetic rubber Rubber Magnet), injection ferrite (Zhusu Ferrite), these three processes based on the orientation of the magnetic crystal different and each is divided into isotropic and anisotropic magnets. These are the main permanent magnet materials currently available in the market, and some due to the production processes raw or cost reasons, can not eliminate a wide range of applications, such as Cu-Ni-Fe (iron-copper-nickel), Fe-Co-Mo (molybdenum iron and cobalt ), Fe-Co-V (vanadium iron cobalt), MnBi (manganese bismuth), AlMnC (cobalt manganese carbon) 1, rare-earth magnets (NdFeB Nd2Fe14B): according to the production process were divided into the following three (1) NdFeB (Sintered NdFeB) - (NdFeB permanent magnets after grinding powder smelting airflow coercivity value is high, and has a very high magnetic properties, the maximum energy product (BHmax) higher than the ferrite (Ferrite) more than 10 times the mechanical properties of its own is also very good, can cutting different shapes and drilling.
The maximum operating temperature of up to 200 degrees of high-performance products. Since the material content easily lead to corrosion, so the need for surface coating of different according to different requirements (eg plating Zn, Ni, Au, Epoxy, etc.). Very hard and brittle, have high resistance to demagnetization, high cost / performance ratio, does not apply to high operating temperature); (2), bonded NdFeB (Bonded NdFeB) - is NdFeB Bonded NdFeB powder and resin, plastic or low melting point metal binder uniformly mixed and then compressed, NdFeB composite extrusion or injection molding, etc. made. Forming a product, no secondary processing, can be made directly to a variety of complex shapes. Bonded NdFeB all directions have magnetic, can be processed into neodymium compression molds and injection molds. High precision, excellent magnetic properties, corrosion resistance, good temperature stability. (3), injection NdFeB (Zhusu NdFeB) - there is a very high degree of precision, easily yielding anisotropic thin-walled complex shapes or thin ring 2. The sintered ferrite magnet (Sintered Ferrite) and the main raw materials, including BaFe12O19 SrFe12O19, based on the orientation of the magnetic crystal divided into isotropic and anisotropic magnets. Because of its low price and moderate magnetic energy and become the most widely used of a magnet. The annual output of 300 tons or more. Ferrite magnets are made of ceramic technology by law, the texture is relatively hard, it is a brittle material, since the ferrite magnets have good temperature resistance and low price, has become the most widely used permanent magnets. 3. Magnetic rubber (Rubber Magnet) is a ferrite magnetic series, by the bonding ferrite powder and synthetic rubber compound by extrusion molding, calendar molding, injection molding process and made of a flexible, flexible and twistable magnet. Processed into strips, roll, sheet and a variety of complex shapes.
The rubber magnet powder (SrO6Fe2O3), polyethylene (CPE) and other additives (EBSO, DOP), etc., by extrusion, calendering manufactured. Rubber Magnets can be of the same sex or the opposite sex, which is made of ferrite powder, CPE and some trace elements, can be bent, you can twist, can be rolled. It can be used without further machining can also be trimmed according to the desired size shape, rubber magnetic according to customer requirements can also be re-PVC, adhesive, the UV oil. Its energy product at 0.60 to 1.50 MGOe. Applications Rubber Magnets: refrigerator, message notification frame, the object is fixed to the metal body with fasteners used advertising for toys, teaching equipment, switches and sensors diskette. Mainly used in micro motors, refrigerator, disinfection cabinet, kitchen cabinets, toys, stationery, advertising and other industries. The aluminum-nickel-cobalt (AlNiCo) is the first developed a permanent magnet material is an alloy of aluminum, nickel, cobalt, iron and other trace metal elements.
According to the production process were divided into sintered Alnico (Sintered AlNiCo) and cast aluminum-nickel-cobalt (Cast AlNiCo). Products are mostly round and square shapes. Casting process can be processed into different sizes and shapes; compared with the casting process, the sintered product confined to a small size, their production out of the rough dimensional tolerances better than the rough casting products, magnetic products to be slightly lower than the casting, but better workability. In the permanent magnet material, the cast Alnico magnet has a low reversible temperature coefficient, working temperature up to 600 degrees Celsius. Alnico magnet products are widely used in various instruments and other applications. 5, samarium cobalt (SmCo) on the basis of different components into SmCo5 and Sm2Co17, respectively Zi Zi generation and second-generation rare earth permanent magnet materials. Because of its raw materials are scarce, expensive and their development is limited. Samarium cobalt (SmCo) as the second generation of rare earth permanent magnet, not only has a higher energy product (14-28MGOe) and reliable coercive force, and in rare earth permanent magnet series exhibit good temperature characteristics. Compared to neodymium, samarium cobalt is more suitable for working in high temperature environments.
Process: ingot-melting ingredients → milling →-pressure sintering tempering → magnetic detection → grinding → pin Qiejia → plating → finished. Which is the basis of the ingredients, tempering sintering is the key
NdFeB magnet production tools: There melting furnace, jaw broken, ball mill, jet mill, pressing machines, vacuum packaging machines, isostatic presses, sintering furnace, vacuum heat treatment furnace, magnetic tester, Gaussmeter.
NdFeB magnet processing tools: a special slicing machine, cutting machine, flat mill, double-sided machine, drilling machine, chamfering machine, plating equipment